Chapter 7: The History Of The Quran


The Quran is the Muslim’s Holy Book - they call it "The Glorious Quran" or Al-Mushaf Al-Shareef.  It contains one hundred and fourteen suras ( a surat is a chapter).  The suras are not arranged chronologically but by length. As those who arranged the Quran put the longest suras first and the shortest at the end. [TOP]

Strange Names

Many suras in the Quran are named after animals or small creatures or other objects.  One surat is named after the jinn ( evil spirits).

Surat Al-Baqarah (Number 2) The Cow
Surat Al-An’am (Number 6) The Cattle
Surat Al-Ra’d (Number 13)  The Thunder
Surat Al-Nahl (Number 16) The Bee
Surat Al-Kahf (Number 18) The Cave
Surat Al-Naml (Number 27) The Ant
Surat Al-’Ankabut (Number 29) The Spider
Surat Al-Dukhan (Number 44)  The Smoke
Surat Al-Tur (Number 52)  The Mount
Surat Al-Najm (Number 53) The Star
Surat Al-Qamar (Number 54) The Moon
Surat Al-Hadid (Number 57) The Iron
Surat Al-Qalam (Number 68) The Pen
Surat Al-Jinn (Number 72) The Jinn
Surat Al-Buruj (Number 85) The Mansions of the Stars
Surat Al-Fajr (Number 89) The Dawn
Surat Al-Shams (Number 92) The Night
Surat Al-Layl (Number 92) The Night
Surat Al-Duha (Number 93) The Morning Hours
Surat Al-Tin ( Number 95) The Fig
Surat Al-’Alaq (Number 96) the Clot
Surat Al-Asr (Number 103) The Declining Day
Surat Al-Fil (Number 105) The Elephant
Surat Al-Falaq (Number 113) The Day Break

How the Quran Was Written [TOP]

Sheikh Abd El-Fatah El-Kady wrote in his book Al Mushaf Al-Shareef             (The Quran - Its History and Tests), pages 14 and 55.

He continues:

Not only were the Quranic writings disorganized, but there were seven different versions of them.  The reason for these different versions of the Quran is that the Quran was revealed to Muhammad in seven different ways (Al-Mushaf Al-Shareef, page 64).
Muhammad said in the Hadith:

Tabari, the great expositor of the Quran, said that the difference between, the seven versions of the Quran (Al-Ahruf Al-Sabaa) was not in the meaning but in the words.  To illustrate: A person can use the word grace, gracefulness. Or the work goods, possessions, or property. But the fact is that the difference in those seven versions were not purely of words but at times related to the basic content of the Quran's text itself.

After Muhammad’s death, at the time of caliph Abu-Bakr, ,many of those who had memorized the Quran died while fighting the apostates in the battle of " Alyamama, "Omar feared that the death of those men would result in the loss of a great portion of the Quran and suggested to Abu-Bakr that the Quran should be collected in one volume.  Abu-Bakr was reluctant to do that, because Muhammad did not collect the Quran in one volume during his life.  After much discussion Omar persuaded Abu-Bakr to order the collection of the Quran. Abu-Bark ordered Aid Bin Sabot to do the job (Al-Mush Al-Shareef, page 59,60).

It is quite clear that the collection of the Quran is something which Muhammad did not do.  It is also clear that the Quran was not completely written in one volume during Muhammad’s life.  This is why Omar and Abu-Bakr feared the loss of great portions of the Quran, If the men who memorized it should die.

Therefore Zaid Ibn Sabit agreed to collect the various pieces of the Quran.  However, when Islam became the religion of many countries, every country used the version of the Quran which was known among them:  the Syrians read AbiKaab’s version, the people of Kofa read Abdallah Ibn Massoud’s version, others read Abu Moussa Alashaby’s version and so on.
When Caliph Uthman took the caliphate, he was confronted by such confusion and sedition concerning the reading of the Quran in the different Islamic countries that he ordered it to be rewritten.

After Uthman competed his Quran he forced all the Islamic countries to have one Quran - and banned all other codices.  He finished the matter by burning all other codices of the Quran.

Dr. Taha Hussein , a well known author, college professor, and minister of education in Egypt, wrote in his book Al- Fitnato Al-Korba (The Great Sedition):

It is very clear that much of the orginal Quran was burned, while other parts were rewritten.  How can we reconcile these historical facts with the following words of the Quran?

If the Quran was inscribed in “a tablet preserved,” and in “a book well-guarded,” why was it necessary for Utham to rewrite the Quran?  How could he burn the other codices?  Why were there other codices in the first place?  These are very serious questions regarding a book said to be God’s word.

The Bible Is The Gold Standard [TOP]

To rightly evaluate the Quran, we have to compare it with the Bible.  The Bible is the gold standard by which we must evaluate the Quran.  Even the Quran declares that the Bible is the absolute standard.  When Mohammad doubted the revelations given to him by the spirit who appeared to him at the cave of Hira,, Allah directed him to ask those who read the Bible before him

It is clear that the scripture that was before Muhammad is the Holy Bible.

We have thousands of manuscripts of the Bible which were in existence before Muhammad.

The late Robert Chapman of England wrote the following statemant concerning the Bible.

Contrary to the Quran, the Bible is arranged in chronological order.

It begins with the Book of Genesis and ends with the Book of Revelation. Dr. Lehman Srauss wrote in the introduction of his book, The book of The Revelation, pages 17,18:

One careful reading of the Bible will convince anyone that this inspired volume forms a complete cycle.  Gensis is the book of commencement; Revelation is the book of consummation.  Revelatioon is an excellent finish to the devine library.

The first book of the Bible knows no completion apart from the last book of  the Bible, and all the rest of the sixty-four books in between are dependent  upon each other.  Not one book in the Bible is an independent contribution  to be divorced from the other books.

This is not the case with the Quran. Its opening surat is a prayer which must be repeated five times a day by evey Muslin, followed by Surat Al-Baqarah which contains many verses that were abrogated in other suras, and it ends with the follwing surat:

This is how the Quran  ends, with fear of Jinn, fear of the sneaking whisperer, and of men, while the Bible ends with the hope of the second coming of Christ and with the grace of Christ on the believers (Revelation 22:20,21).  The Quran is complety different fromt he Bible in its language, style, and seting.  The Bible reconts the stories of the fall of Adam, of the call of Abraham, the stories of Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, and Moses and other prophets and great men of God.  These stories demonstrate the truthfulness and honesty of the Bible and the precious lessons from the life of those patrarchs.  It also records how human begins got to speak different languages even thoughtthey are the decendants of one man.  Adam, and one woman, Eve. [TOP]

Contradiction Between the Bible and the Quran

The Quran mentions many stories and commandments written in the Bible with great distortions and contradiction.  The following are a few examples:

1. Noah’s Wife And Son

The Quran declares that Noah’s entered hell, and that one of his sons was drowned by the flood:

These Quranic verses contradict the Bible which says:

Whom should we believe, the Quran or the Bible?  The Bible tells us that the human race descended after the flood from Shem. Ham and Japheth.  Since none of them drowned, the Quran is in error.

2. Miriam and Mary

In the Arabic Bible both Miriam, the sister of Asron, and Mary, the mother of Jesus, are named “ Maryam.”  But the Quran we read that Mary, the mother of Jesus, is the daughter of Imran, and the sister of Aaron.

Read also verses 29-34 of the same surat.

3. The Planet Earth Circle Or Flat?

Hundreds of years before Copernicus and Galieo, the prophet Isaiah declared that the planet earth is a sphere, he wrote:

Four times the Quran declares that the planet earth is flat:

This is clear evidence that the Bible was inspired by God, while the Quran was not.  If the Quran was inspired by God, the spirit who spoke to Mohammed would have told him that the planet earth is a sphere.
Moreover, the Bible declared, thousands of years before any scientific discoveries concerning the planet earth, that the planet earth is hanging on nothing:

This is how accurate the Bible is.

5. The Throne Of God, Is It On Water Or In Heaven?

The Quran declared that the throne of God is upon water:

The Bible declares that the throne of God is in heaven:

6.  How Are The Dead Resurrected?

In the Quran we read that Abraham asked to show him how He gives life to the dead:


Is The Bible Corrupted?

Because of the many contradictions between the Bible and the Quran, and because the Bible does not mention any prophecies concerning Muhammad, Muslim scholars claim that the Bible has been altered and corrupted. Such a claim is totally against several clear verses of the Quran.

The Quran states explicitly that the Old and the New Testaments are the inspired word of God. Here we have to emphasize the fact that we have at least five thousand ancient manuscripts of the entire Bible which are called codices. These codices go back to the year 350 A.D. that is almost two hundred and fifty years before the birth of Muhammad. One of these ancient codices is kept in the British Museum in London, others are kept in France and in the Vatican at pome.

Because these ancient codices were in existence before the Quran, which came more than six hundred years after Christ, what the Quran declares about the Bible must be applied to these without any dispute. This is what the Quran declares concerning the Old and the New Testament which were in the hands of the Jews and the Christians.

It is clear from these Quranic verses that it was not necessary for the Jews to go to Muhammad for judgment, because they had the Torah which came down from heaven and contained all the needed guidance and light. They had no need for Muhammad or his Quran.

It is we who revealed the Torah [to Moses]: therein was guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, by the prophets who bowed to Allah's will, by the rabbis and the doctors of law: For to them was entrusted the protection of Allah's Book, and they were witnesses thereto:

This verse declares that the Torah was revealed to Moses, that it gives guidance and light, and that the prophets, rabbis and doctors of law were entrusted the protection of Allah' s book.

The important question is: Will God entrust His word to people who would corrupt and alter it? Obviously not. Moses said to the children of Israel:

The apostle Paul declares:

God committed His oracles to the Jewish prophets. They were kept pure throughout history.
If the Jews had altered the Old Testament, they would have taken out the story of the fall of their King David (1I Samuel 11:1-26); the hard words directed to them (Isaiah 1:21); and the terrible prophecies concerning their future (Zechariah 14:1,2).
The existence of these and other stories related to them indicate the truthfulness of the Old Testament.

Now let us examine the testimony of the Quran concerning the New Testament (Ingeel in Arabic).

According to this Quranic verse, Jesus confirmed the Torah. The New Testament also teaches that Jesus confirmed the Torah:

The Quran declares that the Gospel was sent to Jesus. What is the Gospel? The apostle Paul defines the Gospel in the following words:

In this passage we see that the death of Jesus Christ was to fulfill the Scriptures, and that His burial and resurrection were also to fulfill the Scriptures.  The crucifixion, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ were not a man made story. It was a Biblical and historical reality, foretold in the Old Testament and fulfilled in the New Testament.

The Gospel was given in four books, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.  The four books were in reality one gospel in different settings, but their focal point was the crucifixion, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. Moreover, each book gave a special picture of Jesus Christ. TheGospel of Matthew is the Gospel of Jesus the King.  The Gospel of Mark is the Gospel of Jesus the Servant. The Gospel of Luke is the Gospel of Jesus the Perfect Man. The Gospel of John is the Gospel of Jesus the Son of God. But the four Gospels concentrated on one issue, and one event that is the crucifixion, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

It is clear from the Quranic verses which will be mentioned below that the Quran does not supersede the Torah or the gospel.  If the Quran supersedes them why does the Quran say that the people of the book (Jews and Christians)will not have any guidance until they keep the Torah and the Gospel?

The Quran is explicit in confirming the authenticity of the Bible:

It is very clear from these verses that God promised to guard His word. There is no way to alter it.
If God is immutable and unchangeable, and most certainly He is, then this principle must be applied to all his books.  He can not guard one of his books and leave the other to be corrupted. No one would trust a God who guards a part of his word and leaves another part to be tampered with.  The conclusion is, since the Bible is the Word of God, then it was guarded and kept pure throughout history by the power of God.  We have no choice but to accept it as such without any dispute.

The claim, by some Muslims, that the Bible was cormpted, is in conflict with the Quran which confirms the Bible. At the same time it is an insult to God, who gave the Torah to Moses and the Gospel to Jesus, to say He was unable to guard these books from corruption.
In addition, the New Testament ends with these solemn words:

Who would dare to add or take away from the Word of God after such a warning?
We are assured that the God of the Bible is immutable, unchanging, and most certainly He, blessed be His name, guarded the Bible and kept it pure.

So, the question is, which one is the true word of God, the Quran or the Bible? The truth is that the Bible is the original Word of God. It was in the hands of the Jews and the Christians 600 years before the Quran. The Quran must be the altered document because of the clear contradictions between it and the Bible.
The Bible is like a piece of pure gold. It holds in itself the proof of its purity.  The Bible is self-interpretive.  It can be understood by comparing its verses to interpret scripture with scripture.  When anyone receives the Lord Jesus Christ as his or her savior, the Holy Spirit euminates his or her heart and mind to understand and enjoy

Concerning the Quran we read:

The Quran is a book the meaning of which no one can know. Would God give us a book that no one can understand?